Gymnastics (from the Greek word “gymnasia” – teach, train) – a system of corporal (physical) exercises that were developed in ancient Greece for many centuries before our era – served as a general purpose for all-round physical development and improvement. But there is another, less compelling, version of the origin of the word from the Greek “gimnos” – naked, because athletes exercised and competed without clothing. About the beneficial effects of regular gymnastic exercise at the harmonious development of individual was written and spoken by Homer, Aristotle and Plato.
In ancient times, gymnastics was familiar not only to Greeks. For example, in China and India people also practiced gymnastic exercises several thousand years ago – mainly for medical purposes.
Gymnastics of those times, in addition to general developmental and military exercises, horsemanship, swimming, simulation and ritual dances also included such kinds of sport as running, jumping, throwing, fighting, fist fighting, riding in chariots, which were included in a program of the Olympic games of antiquity, held from 776 BC to 392 AD
Gymnastics is almost the only sport that simultaneously develops all the physical qualities. It is clear, that for each of its species there are specific qualities. So, rhythmic requires the original flexibility, then speed and power. Artistic – agility, strength, quickness and flexibility. Acrobatics – strength, dexterity, flexibility, agility. And, of course, all kinds of gymnastics are difficult-coordination sports, and improvement of high technology requires great endurance.
Artistic gymnastics – a sport which consists of a program on gymnastic apparatus and floor exercise. Women’s artistic gymnastics includes floor exercises, performance on the balance beam, uneven bars and on the women’s vault. Men’s artistic gymnastics -floor exercise, vault, exercises on the pommel horse, parallel bars, still rings and high bar.
Even in ancient times were known special adaptations that are similar to some modern exercise equipment. Thus, in ancient Rome for learning the basics of horsemanship people used some sort of “horse”, which is known to us.
In Europe the immediate precursor of modern gymnastics in the XVI-XVII centuries has become vaulting (exercises and jumping) on the table and a horse, climb a pole and wall, maintaining the balance on the rope and the trees.
The original systems of gymnastics have been created in France by F. Amorosa (1770-1847), in Sweden (Swedish) by P.-G. Ling (1776-1839), and in Czech Republic (Sokolskaya) by Miroslav Tyrsh (1832-1884).
In the XVIII – early XIX centuries in Germany was invented a system of physical education, which was based on gymnastics. The founder of the German gymnastic movement was Friedrich Ludwig Jahn. He greatly expanded the “gymnastic area,” and invented new exercises and apparatus (including the bar and parallel bars), laying thus the foundations of modern artistic gymnastics.
In 1881 the European gymnastics federation (FEG) was created, which initially consisted of just three countries: Belgium, France and Holland. The founder and first president of the Federation became a Belgian Nicolas Kuperus. But already in 1921 – with the advent in the FEG first non-European countries – it was reorganized into the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG).
Gymnastics began recognized kind of sport in 1896 when it was included in the program of the first modern Olympic Games. And since then it is the real decoration of it.
Rhythmic gymnastics is one of the most spectacular and graceful sports, it is performing to the music various gymnastic and dance exercises without apparatus, as well as with it (rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon).
All the exercises are accompanied by music. Previously was used music, played on a piano or another instrument. Now orchestral soundtrack is used. The choice of music depends on the desires of gymnasts and coaches. However, each exercise should be no more than one minute and a half. Competitions are held on the gymnastics carpet measuring 13×13 meters. The classic all-around (4 Exercises) is Olympic discipline. In addition to all-around, gymnast performing in the individual championship, traditionally play sets of awards in certain types of exercises (except the Olympics).
Competitions without an apparatus are not conducted on a world-class competitions recently. Gymnasts use simultaneously two kinds of apparatus (for example – hoops and balls) and one kind of apparatus (five balls, five pairs of clubs), performing group exercises. Winners are determined in the all-around, in disciplines and group exercises.
Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 30 points – for seniors and 28,5 – for juniors. Since 1984, rhythmic gymnastics is the Olympic kind of sport. Until recently it was female sport, but at the end of XX century, thanks to the efforts of Japanese gymnasts. were held competitions between men.
Gymnastics for all
Established under the patronage of the FIG, gymnastrada is a synthesis of absolutely all areas of gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, acrobatics, trampoline, sport aerobics) as well as folklore, modern dance and fitness. Its main goal is to bring people of different nationalities and ethnic groups together; as well as to strength friendly relations among nations and people. This is one of the most affordable types of physical activity, which bears primarily a health nature.
Everybody can practice this kind of sport – people with good physical preparation and people with disabilities, age of participants is unlimited.
The idea of the festival dates back to the year 1939. After 10 years at the General Assembly of the international gymnastics federation by unanimous vote of its members it was decided to hold International festival of gymnastics every four years, as the Olympic cycle. And already in 1953 in Rotterdam, to the delight of sports fans, a colorful, even a little bit theatrical program was represented. There were about 5000 people, participating on the first World Festival of gymnastics for all.