Every state has the inherent traditions in developing of physical culture. Gymnastics, as well as other sports, is based on the whole complex of traditional and innovative means of physical education, which belong to different historical periods.
Gymnastics in Central Asia and particularly in Uzbekistan has been already “imported” with a definite Sokolsky shape, which has the beginnings of sporty style, while the elements and the whole directions of medical, recreational, and applied physical education in Uzbekistan has had profound and often evidence-based roots. Evidence of this is found in the epic Alpomish, in the writings of Ibn Sina, during the era of Amir Timur.
There are a lot of important dates and events in the history of gymnastics, many of them belong to the 20th century.
The “Society of Friends of gymnastics and physical exercises” was created in 1904. It should be noted that at that time the term “gymnastics” included different exercises such as running, jumping, throwing, etc. But it was the first gymnastic society, and it played a big role in the further development of sport. It was organized by a group of athletes and there was only about 15-20 people.
In the charter “of the Society of Friends of gymnastics and physical exercises,” was noted that members of society can not be students of educational institutions, since there are no gymnastic classes. So in 1880 a special commission has developed a program for four-year parochial schools of Turkestan, which included the classes on gymnastics, in addition to the basic lessons.
With opening in Tashkent gymnastic-fencing school, it became more and more popular, and the number of members of this society has increased significantly, but still it included a number of exercises that did not meet the requirements of gymnastics. Competitions were not conducted.
In 1912, with a view to complete the Russian team for the Olympic Games in Stockholm, the official competitions in gymnastics were held in Turkestan, the winner of these competitions was Lieutenant Volchanskiy. This date of the first official competition was considered as the birthday of Artistic Gymnastics in Turkestan. After this event new gymnastic societies in Kokand, Fergana and Samarkand begin to appear.
In 1915 first gymnastic course opened in Tashkent at girls’ school. These courses were finished by Polina V. Garfung who subsequently done a lot for the development of gymnastics in Uzbekistan. Gymnastics, as well as other sports, became the property of the masses. Promoting public health through physical education and sport has become a matter of state. Thus, gymnastics took its place in the overall system of physical education of the people of Uzbekistan. It should be noted that for some time still existed Swedish and Sokolskaya systems of gymnastics, which remained from the after imperial Russia, but these systems were soon replaced by a new one, which met the requirements of the socialist state. Gymnastics began to penetrate Bukhara, Kattakurgan, Namangan, Urgench. The greatest development in these years it receives in military units and military educational institutions.
In 1918 was opened “Children’s Sports Club”, where were held gymnastic games. The year 1919 is characterized by the fact that, starting from this year, there were held various competitions for students, they were called “Olympic games.”
October 10, 1920 opened the first Central Asian Olympics, which was a great event for athletes and showcase of their achievements. In the same year a draft board of Fergana Region published ‘brief program of teaching physical education”. It included gymnastics, running, jumping, games. The introduction states:”Gymnastics has a purpose: to give a proper physical development, correct the deficiencies of the body, develop the ability to coordinate movements, develop discipline and strengthen the nervous system – the balance.”
The big event of the year 1921 was the establishment of the Central Council of Physical Education in the management of compulsory education of Turkfront. Its purpose was to unite the various athletic organizations and the sustainable management of the affairs of the physical education of the people of Turkestan.
In 1928, on the second all-uzbek sport festival gymnast from Tashkent Mechislav Murashko won the title of Absolute Champion of the USSR.
In 1933, on the first official gymnastic championship in Tashkent, and then in subsequent years, the great results are achieved by E. Dakhin, B. Yastrebov, E. Eletskaya, B. Bogatova, V. Nazarov, N. Kotin, A. Petukhov and others.
Prominent role in the development of gymnastics in Uzbekistan played the opening in 1935 College of Physical Education, where worked gymnastics instructor Yan Halilovich Murtazin, who graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physical Education, as well as teachers Rashid Khamidov and Umar Asadov.
In 1936, the first time in Uzbekistan was held championship on children’s gymnastics. V. Lebedev, and R. Tomilina became champions of the Republic. Excellent results were achieved by young gymnasts G. Kust and D. Sokolovskaya. At the same time successfully performed one of the best gymnasts of the Republic Chervichenko from Samarkand.
In 1949 appeared a brilliant uzbek gymnast Galina Shamray – champion of the Republic, then Honored Master of Sports, Olympic champion in the team competition, the first absolute world champion in 1954
Elvira Saadi – Honored Master of Sports, was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples (1976) and the medal “For Labor” (1972). Olympic gold medalist in 1972 in the team competition, the absolute champion of USSR, 1973 USSR champion in 1972 in the floor exercise and balance beam, 1973 – on the Balance Beam.
In 1955 was opened Uzbek State Institute of Physical Education, Department of gymnastics was involved in the preparation and conducting of mass gymnastic performances on all holidays of the Republic on the stadiums “Spartak”, “Pakhtakor” as well as Celebrations Square.
In 1962, the Department of gymnastics and gymnastics community marked the 50th anniversary of the exercises in Uzbekistan. There were issued commemorative badges, they awarded to coaches, athletes and community members.